Bryaceae. Genus Brachymenium

1. Plants large; leaves 35 mm long; plants autoicous; sporphytes usually present; setae 23 cm long; capsules clavate 1. B. nepalense

Brachymenium nepalense occurs sporadically in the southern part of the Russian Far East (Primorsky Territory and Amurskaya Province). It grows on deciduous tree trunks, rocks and fallen logs. It is most common and abundant on dead trunks in open places and at forest edges. The northernmost Russian locality for B. nepalense is the Commander Islands where it is found on cliff ledges in bird nesting areas. It can be recognized by its bryoid habit and erect capsules that have reduced peristomes with narrowly triangular or linear exostome teeth, at times low endostomial basal membranes and often rudimentary endostomial segments/cilia.

Plants small; leaves 0.51.0 mm long; plants dioicous, sporophytes unknown in Russia [seta <5 mm long; capsules cylindrical] 2. B. exile

Brachymenium exile is a pantropical species that has been found only once on coastal cliffs in the southern part of the Russian Far East (Primorsky Territory). This collection is the holotype for B. exiloides Bard. & Cherd. The authors considered this species very close to B. exile, but differing in having more shortly excurrent costae; less concave leaves; and no axillary gemmae. But, in fact the holotype of B. exiloides has gemmae (although not on every plant); furthermore, the leaves of B. exile can be quite variable. Brachymenium exiloides is here synonymized with B. exile. Brachymenium exile is superficially similar to small plants of Bryum argenteum, but differs from it in having yellow-green rather than silvery-green plants and much stouter, excurrent costae. Some species of Anomobryum are also similar to B. exile, but these Anomobryum species differ in having much longer leaf cells.