Moss flora of Volgograd Province includes 129 species. The highest number of species have Pottiaceae (21 species), Bryaceae (16), Brachytheciaceae (16). The list of species includes information on localities, habitats, substrate for each species. The distribution of species by the main groups of habitats and substrates is provided, and a comparison with the neighboring steppe provinces is given, as well as the comparison of six physiographic regions of the province. Nearly 60% of species are rare in Volgograd Province. The strategy of choose of species and sites for protection is discussed.