The annotated list of mosses of the Caucasian Reserve is published here for the first time. Moss flora includes 332 species and 6 varieties of 45 families and 137 genera; 4 species are new for Caucasus and 1 species – Hookeria lucens is new for Russia. The Caucasian Reserve occupies the North and South macroslopes of the Western Caucasus (36°45'–40°50'N, 43°30' – 44°05'E; 400 – 3360 m alt., area – 2816 sq. km). The mountain massifs are formed by granites, shales and calcareous rocks (limestones). The conspect includes habitat preferences for each species. Abbreviations are used to show the occurrences of species in three geobotanic regions: I – Sochi region (southern macroslope of Caucasus Range, faced to Black Sea), II – Maikop region (northern macroslope of Caucasus, basin of Belaya River); III – Labinsk region (northern macroslope, basin of the Laba River) (Fig. 1). Also abbreviations refer to mountain belts as follow: MF – middle mountain forest belt (broad-leaved forests at 400–800 m alt.); UF – upper mountain forest belt (mixed coniferous—broad-leaved forests at 700–2000 m alt.); SAF – subalpine forest belt (open birch and beech woodlands, pine and maple forests at 1800–2200 m alt.); SA – subalpine belt, Rhododendron shrubs, subalpine meadows and mires, at 1800–2400 m alt.); A – alpine belt (alpine meadows and lichen heaths, mound and rock plant aggregations, 2200–3000 m alt); the occurrence of species is abbreviated as follow: Un – unique; R – rare; Sp – sporadic; Fr – frequently; Com – common.