The results of exploration of moss flora of Astrakhan Province are summarized, the list including 44 species. This poor species diversity is contrasting with high number of rare xeric species, known in European Russia only in limited area of Lower Volga River. This xeric element includes: Entosthodon hungaricus, Acaulon triquetrum, Microbryum curvicollum, Pseudocrossidium hornschuchianum, Pterygoneurum lamellatum, Tortula lanceola. Some more species are common to this area and Ural Mts.: Didymodon vinealis, Grimmia plagiopodia, Brachythecium collinum, Funaria pulchella.