In the course of revision of Polytrichaceae for the moss flora of Russia, among collections previously referred to Lyellia aspera from southern part of Siberia and Far East, the second species of the genus, Lyellia crispa was found. This is the first record for Russia of this species that was known up to now from Himalayas and China. Descriptions, illustrations and habitat data are given and the distribution in Russia is mapped. The differentiation of these two species is discussed.