The revision of Brachythecium from Russia that use both traditional morphological appoach in combination with nuclear ITS study reveals three undescribed species in Asian part of the country. They are described here as B. baicalense, B. boreale, and B. extremiorientale. The species status of B. udum, B. acutum, B. brandegei, B. rotaeanum is discussed. Brachythecium digastrum is synonymized with B. laetum. New combinations: Eurhynchiastrum pulchellum var. barnesii and Sciuro-hypnum delicatulum are suggested. Brachythecium buchananii is revealed in Europe. ITS data allow to reduce the ambiguity of taxonomic decisions in the group, although sometimes good species has no difference in ITS between species, e.g. in group of B. salebrosum+B. erythrorrhizon +B.brandegei+B.glareosum.