Eight species of Bryoerythrophyllum are currently known in Russia: B. alpigenum, B. brachystegium (new for Russia), B. ferruginascens, B. inaequalifolium, B. latinervium (Holmen) Fedosov & Ignatova comb. nov., B. recurvirostrum, B. rotundatum, and B. rubrum. The study of nrITS region demonstrated that B. latinervium (B. recurvirostrum var. latinervium) is clearly distinct from B. recurvirostrum. Bryoerythrophyllum alpigenum, often treated as B. recurvirostrum var. dentatum, is also confirmed to be a distinct species. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum was found in a separate clade, although one dioicous sample was proved to be B. recurvirostrum, which poses a problem of reconsideration of differential characters of these taxa. Key for identification, species descriptions, maps and species illustrations are provided.