Three species of Dicranum with fragile leaves were usually recognized in Russia: D. fragilifolium, D. tauricum and D. viride. However, our revision based on morphology and nrITS sequences reveals that two more species were overlooked. Collections from the Russian Far East, including both mainland and the Kuril Islands, usually treated as D. viride were found to be different from the european D. viride, thus supporting the resurrection of D. hakkodense Cardot that was synonymised with D. viride and not accepted for a long time as a distinct species. In addition to the resurrection of D. hakkodense, its distributional range is much expanded. One more species, Dicranum pacificum sp. nov. was revealed among the collections from Kamchatka, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. It is clearly separated from the superficially similar D. fragilifolium, although probably not closely related to it. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the group of Dicranum with fragile leaves is not monophyletic.