Three species of Anoectangium are currently known in Russia: A. aestivum (Hedw.) Mitt., A. handelii Schiffn. and A. straheyanum Mitt., the latter species is reported for the first time for the country. Anoectangium thomsonii Mitt. is excluded from the bryoflora of Russia. Anoectangium amurense Broth. and A. contortum Broth., both described from the Amurskaya Province of the Russian Far East, are synonymized with A. stracheyanum. Anoectangium aestivum is a rare species known from northwestern European Russia and the Caucasus; all its records from Asia were based on erroneously identified specimens. Anoectangium stracheyanum occurs in the East of Asiatic Russia and is locally abundant in Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, spreading westwards almost to Baikal Lake in Irkutsk Province. Anoectangium handelii was found only once on Olkhon Island at Baikal Lake. Key for identification, descriptions and illustrations of the species are provided.