The annotated list of 217 hepatics and 380 mosses that were revealed in the South Kuril Islands, including Simushir, Urup, Chirpoi, Iturup, Kunashir, and Shikotan is presented. This is the local bryophyte flora with the highest number of species in Russia. Many species of mosses are reported for the first time from Russia, including Glossadelphus ogatae, Philonotis turneriana, Leptodictyum mizushimae, etc. Two new varieties, Nardia geoscyphus (De Not.) Lindb. var. dioica Bakalin and Plectocolea flagellata S. Hatt. var. kurilensis Bakalin are described.