Didymodon brachyphyllus (Sull.) R.H. Zander, D. erosodenticulatus (Müll. Hal.) K. Saito, D. leskeoides K.Saito, D. luridus Hornsch. and D. maschalogenus (Renauld & Cardot) Broth. were discovered as new for Russia during recent floristic investigation of southern Siberia, Russian Far East and Caucasus, as well as a revision on herbarium collections. Two of them, D. brachyphyllus and D. maschalogenus, were collected in Kamchatka Peninsula, D. leskeoides was found in Buryatia and Chukotka, D. erosodenticulatus was collected in Altai, Zabaikalskyi and Primorsky Territories, whereas D. luridus was revealed in collections from the Black Sea coastal area in Krasnodar Territory. Preliminary key for identification of 29 species of Didymodon currently known in Russia is provided.