The genus Entosthodon Schwägr. is represented in the Caucasus by six species, among them only E. muhlenbergii has been known for the territory until now. Entostodon fascicularis is excluded from the Caucasian moss flora, as all so-called specimens are re-identified as E. handelii, a species new for Russia. Three new species, Entosthodon dagestanicus, E. abramovae and E. stenophyllus, are described and illustrated. Entosthodon hungaricus is found in the region for the first time. The identification key is given for the Entosthodon species from the Caucasus and neighboring areas.