The genus Lindbergia is subdivided into 3 groups basing on morphological and molecular characters, and all these groups are represented in Russia. Lindbergia brachyptera is excluded from the Russian moss flora, it likely occurs only in North America; Russian plants referred to it belong to a closely related L. grandiretis. Specimens reported from the Russian Far East as Lindbergia duthiei and L. japonica are re-identified as L. sinensis. Mamillariella, a monospecific genus, is the closest relative to L. sinensis and is transferred to Lindbergia. Lindbergia dagestanica Ignatova & Ignatov sp. n. is described from the East Caucasus; this species is closely related to the American L. mexicana and African L. patentifolia. Plants of the latter group have never been reported from Eurasia before.