A revision of the genus Bryum in Middle European Russia (= European Russia, excluding the Caucasus, the Kola Peninsula and Karelia, and northern Arkhangelsk Province and the Komi Republic, and including the Ural Mountains to the northern border of Perm and Sverdlovsk/Ekaterinburg Provinces) documents the occurrence of twenty-nine species, including B. algovicum, B. amblyodon, B. alpinum, B. arcticum, B. argenteum, B. bicolor, B. bimum, B. caespiticium, B. capillare, B. creberrimum, B. cyclophyllum, B. elegans, B. funkii, B. intermedium, B. klingraeffii, B. knowltonii, B. kunzei, B. laevifilum, B. lonchocaulon, B. pallens, B. pallescens, B. pseudotriquetrum, B. rubens, B. schleicheri, B. subapiculatum, B. turbinatum, B. uliginosum, B. violaceum, B. weigelii. All species are described and illustrated, selected specimens are cited (at least one for each province/republic), and a key is provided. Bryum bimum is treated as distinct from B. pseudotriquetrum, as is B. kunzei from B. caespiticium, and B. lonchocaulon (B. cirrhatum auct.) from B. pallescens.