Buxbaumiaceae. Genus Buxbaumia

1. Capsules more or less round in transverse section, or slightly asymmetric with mouth almost vertical, not subdivided into clearly different upper and lower regions; Far East and southern Siberia 3. B. minakatae

Sporadic in southern part of the Russian Far East with isolated records westward to the Altai and northward to Kamchatka. The species is an obligatory epixylic growing on fallen logs and stumps in mixed forests of Pinus and deciduous trees, as well as Larix/Pinus forests.

Capsules dorsiventral with a distinct border between upper and lower regions, the upper region more or less flat; various regions 2
2. Upper and lower regions of capsules different in color and separated by a dark red rim: upper pale-brown, lower deep red-brown; stomata unicellular, immersed; setae roughly papillose; mostly epigeic, rarely epixylic plants; widespread 1. B. aphylla

This species grows on bare sandy and loamy soil, especially in pine forests, occasionally in other habitats; rarely on rotten wood. Widespread in European Russia, commonly associated with man-made habitats, especially along small forest roads and fire trenches, typically associated with Cephaloziella rubella. It is unmistakable when growing on soil, while epixylic plants can be identified by its clearly dorsiventral capsules.

Upper and lower regions of capsules similar in color and not separated by a distinct rim: pale yellowish brown; stomata bicellular, superficial; setae slightly papillose; obligate epixilic plants; rare in the Caucasus and regions along Baltic Sea 2. B. viridis

Rare and vulnerable epixylic moss with only a few, mostly old, records in the western part of European Russia. More or less stable, protected populations of the species exist in the Teberda Nature Reserve in the Caucasus; the species grows in the fir forest belt at middle elevations. It appears to be Genuslly declining.