Funariaceae. Genus Funaria

1. Capsule erect to slightly inclined, almost symmetric 2
Capsule inclined to pendent, asymmetric 3
2. Exostome teeth attached at tips to a disk-like plate; ventral trabeculae greatly projecting along teeth margins, ciliate at tips; endostome segments to 1/2 exostome length; rare arctic species 4. F. polaris

This rare species is known in Russia only in Asian Arctic from Taimyr to Chukotka. It differs from F. hygrometrica in having erect, symmetric capsules and short endostome segments.

Exostome teeth free; ventral trabeculae shortly projecting along teeth margins, not ciliate at tips; endostome segments and exostome nearly equal in length; xeric species in the Caucasus 3. F. aequidens

This rare species occurs in the Caucasus on moderately dry rock outcrops in the lower forest belt. It differs from F. hygrometrica in having erect, nearly symmetric capsules, peristome teeth that are free rather than attached at the tips to a disk-like plate.

3. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate; urn mouths less than 1/2 capsule width; endostome reaches a half or less the exostome length [F. microstoma]

In Russia no record of this species has been confirmed. However, it likely will be found in the western part of European Russia, because the species is known from Ukraine and in Poland not far from the Kaliningrad Province (Klingraeff, 1893).

Leaves ovate to broadly obovate; urn mouths broader than 1/2 capsule width; endostome 2/3 or more the exostome length 4
4. Leaves 2-4 mm long, shortly to longly acuminate; costae percurrent to excurrent; setae 2-7 cm long; urn mouths strongly oblique to almost parallel to the axis of the capsule; widespread species 1. F. hygrometrica

A common species in disturbed habitats almost throughout Russia. Its pyriform capsules with oblique, conspicuous red rimmed (when premature) mouths and deeply longitudinally furrowed urns (when mature) greatly aid in recognizing this species. Distinguishing F. hygrometrica from other species of the genus are given in comments under the other species.

Leaves 1.5-2.5 mm long, obtuse to obtusely acute; costae subpercurrent to percurrent; setae 0.8-1.2 cm long; urn mouths scarcely oblique to the axis of the capsules; rare arctic species 2. F. arctica

This northern species is closely related to F. hygrometrica but differs in 1) capsules weakly furrowed to smooth and only slightly curved with mouths vertical to somewhat upright, not downward facing; 2) blunt leaf apices; 3) straight, rather than twisted exostome teeth; 4) larger spores: 21-27 vs. 12-20 m.