Splachnaceae. Genus Splachnum

1.Hypophyses umbelliform 2

Hypophyses globose, ampullaceous, or only slightly inflated, as wide as urns 4

2.Hypophyses purple-red, convex-umbrelliform; leaf margins serrate almost throughout 5. S. rubrum

A boreal species extending as far south as S. ampullaceum in the hemiboreal zone. It occurs in wet forests and peatlands on mammal dung (bears, boars, cows, etc.).

Hypophyses yellow to whitish, discoid-umbrelliform; leaf margins serrulate to subentire above, entire below 3

3.Hypophyses yellow, 715 mm in diameter, urns yellowish to orange; setae 1020 cm 6. S. luteum

Locally common (e.g., in Yakutia and Kola Peninsula) in northern parts of the boreal zone, especially in areas with reindeer pasturing. There are a few, mostly old, records of the species in more southern regions, and this may indicate a decline in its range and abundance. The species also has a limited distribution in the Arctic. It grows in wet or moist places on the dung of reindeer and cows, dead Lemmus bodies and other animal-derived substrates.

Hypophyses whitish, 35 mm in diamater, urns purple; setae 13 m 7 . S. melanocaulon

This species is known in Russia from only four, very isolated localities: St.Petersburg area; the Komi Republic; lower Yenissey River; and Kamchatka.

4(1). Hypophyses as wide as or only slightly wider than urns; upper leaves entire 5

­ Hypophyses much wider than urns; upper leaves serrate or serrulate, or if entire than leaf apices obtuse 6

5.Setae to 1 cm; capsules emergent or shortly exserted; leaves long lanceolate, length/width ratio 35: 1. S. pensylvanicum

An exceedingly rare species in Russia known from two collections of 1911 and 1931 made in a peat bog in Kaliningrad Province. However, the species is extant, but extremely rare, in the nearby Baltic countries.

­ Setae 18 cm, capsules long exserted; leaves broadly obovate, length/width ratio 1.52.51 2. S. sphaericum

Splachnum sphaericum occurs mostly in the Russian Arctic region and treeless areas of the boreal mountains. There are a few scattered localities for the species in the boreal zone. It grows on dung and occasionally on rotten logs.

6.Hypophyses yellowish-green when young, purple when mature, pyriform or ampullaceus gradually tapered to setae; leaves acuminate, serrate above 3. S. ampullaceum

Primarily a boreal species, not found in the Arctic, the species is absent in permafrost zone of Siberia. To the south it extends into the hemiboreal zone, where large peat bogs and swampy forests keep dung wet and suitable for Splachnaceae species. In Asia it occurs farther to the south of Russia, but within Russian territory there are no confirmed records from the Caucasus or Altai. The southernmost Russian localities for the species are in the Baikal area. It grows on the dung of cows/boars, as well as in bogs, swamps and wet meadows.

Hypophyses yellowish to rose when young, dark-red to purple-violet when mature, globose, abruptly tapered to setae; leaves blunt, nearly entire 4. S. vasculosum

An Arcto-alpine species confined in Russia to the Arctic and northermost parts of the boreal zone. There is one locality of the species south of 62N in the southern Siberian mountains, in Eastern Sayans. It grows in mires, on dung, dead bodies and in places where birds have molted.